1  Manual implementation of the Mersenne twister PseudoRandom Number Generator (PRNG)
1.1  Common API for the PRNG defined here
1.2  First example: a simple linear congruential generator
1.3  Trying to write a cell in cython, for speeding things up
1.4  Checking and plotting the result?
1.5  A second example: Multiple-Recursive Generator
1.6  A third example: combined Multiple-Recursive Generator, with MRG32k3a
1.7  Finally, the Mersenne twister PRNG
1.7.1  Period
1.7.2  Random seeds
1.7.3  Implementing the Mersenne twister algorithm
1.7.4  Small review of bitwise operations
1.7.6  Testing our implementations
1.8  Conclusion
2  Generating samples from other distributions
2.1  Bernoulli distribution
2.2  Uniform distribution on $[a, b)$, for floats and integers
2.3  Exponential distribution
2.4  Gaussian distribution (normal)
2.5  Erlang distribution
2.6  Gamma distribution
2.7  Beta distribution
2.8  Integer Beta distribution
2.9  Binomial distribution
2.10  Geometric distribution
2.11  Poisson distribution
2.12  Conclusion
3  Generating vectors
3.1  Discrete distribution
3.2  Generating a random vector uniformly on a n-dimensional ball
3.3  Generating a random permutation
3.4  Conclusion
# # Manual implementation of the Mersenne twister PseudoRandom Number Generator (PRNG) # This small notebook is a short experiment, to see if I can implement the [Mersenne twister](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mersenne_twister) PseudoRandom Number Generator ([PRNG](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudo-random_number_generator)). # # And then I want to use it to define a rand() function, and use it to samples from the most famous discrete and continuous probability distributions. # Random permutations will also be studied. # # - *Reference*: [Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mersenne_twister), and this book: ["Simulation and the Monte-Carlo method", by R.Y.Rubinstein & D.P.Kroese](http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118632168.html) ([Rubinstein & Kroese, 2017]), chapter 2 pages 52-53. If you are curious, [this webpage](https://realpython.com/python-random/) is a good explanation of the difference between PRNG, Cryptographically Secure PRNG (CSPRNG) and "True" NRG. # - *Date*: 11 March 2017. # - *Author*: [Lilian Besson](https://GitHub.com/Naereen/notebooks). # - *License*: [MIT Licensed](https://lbesson.mit-license.org/). # # ---- # ## Common API for the PRNG defined here # First, I want to define a simple object-oriented API, in order to write all the examples of PNRG with the same interface. # In: import numpy as np # In: class PRNG(object): """Base class for any Pseudo-Random Number Generator.""" def __init__(self, X0=0): """Create a new PRNG with seed X0.""" self.X0 = X0 self.X = X0 self.t = 0 self.max = 0 def __iter__(self): """self is already an iterator!""" return self def seed(self, X0=None): """Reinitialize the current value with X0, or self.X0. - Tip: Manually set the seed if you need reproducibility in your results. """ self.t = 0 self.X = self.X0 if X0 is None else X0 def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it.""" # This default PRNG does not produce random numbers! self.t += 1 return self.X def randint(self, *args, **kwargs): """Return an integer number in [| 0, self.max - 1 |] from the PRNG.""" return self.__next__() def int_samples(self, shape=(1,)): """Get a numpy array, filled with integer samples from the PRNG, of shape = shape.""" # return [ self.randint() for _ in range(size) ] return np.fromfunction(np.vectorize(self.randint), shape=shape, dtype=int) def rand(self, *args, **kwargs): """Return a float number in [0, 1) from the PRNG.""" return self.randint() / float(1 + self.max) def float_samples(self, shape=(1,)): """Get a numpy array, filled with float samples from the PRNG, of shape = shape.""" # return [ self.rand() for _ in range(size) ] return np.fromfunction(np.vectorize(self.rand), shape=shape, dtype=int) # ---- # ## First example: a simple linear congruential generator # Let me start by implementing a simple linear congruential generator, with three parameters $m$, $a$, $c$, defined like this : # # - Start from $X_0$, # - And then follow the recurrence equation: $$X_{t+1} = (a X_t + c) \mod m.$$ # # This algorithm produces a sequence $(X_t)_{t\in\mathbb{N}} \in \mathbb{N}^{\mathbb{N}}$. # In: class LinearCongruentialGenerator(PRNG): """A simple linear congruential Pseudo-Random Number Generator.""" def __init__(self, m, a, c, X0=0): """Create a new PRNG with seed X0.""" super(LinearCongruentialGenerator, self).__init__(X0=X0) self.m = self.max = m self.a = a self.c = c def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it, following the recurrence equation: X_{t+1} = (a X_t + c) mod m.""" self.t += 1 x = self.X self.X = (self.a * self.X + self.c) % self.m return x # The values recommended by the authors, Lewis, Goodman and Miller, are the following: # In: m = 1 << 31 - 1 # 1 << 31 = 2**31 a = 7 ** 4 c = 0 # The seed is important. If $X_0 = 0$, this first example PRNG will only produce $X_t = 0, \forall t$. # In: FirstExample = LinearCongruentialGenerator(m=m, a=a, c=c) # In: def test(example, nb=3): for t, x in enumerate(example): print("{:>3}th value for {.__class__.__name__} is X_t = {:>10}".format(t, example, x)) if t >= nb - 1: break # In: test(FirstExample) # But with any positive seed, the sequence will appear random. # In: SecondExample = LinearCongruentialGenerator(m=m, a=a, c=c, X0=12011993) # In: test(SecondExample) # The sequence is completely determined by the seed $X_0$: # In: SecondExample.seed(12011993) test(SecondExample) # > Note: I prefer to use this custom class to define iterators, instead of a simple generator (with yield keyword) as I want them to have a .seed(X0) method. # ## Trying to write a cell in [cython](http://cython.org/), for speeding things up # > For more details, see [this blog post](https://acsgsoc15.wordpress.com/2015/04/07/using-cython-in-ipython/), and [this other one](https://www.dataquest.io/blog/jupyter-notebook-tips-tricks-shortcuts/#22-writing-functions-in-other-languages). # In: # Thanks to https://nbviewer.jupyter.org/gist/minrk/7715212 from __future__ import print_function from IPython.core import page def myprint(s): try: print(s['text/plain']) except (KeyError, TypeError): print(s) page.page = myprint # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('load_ext', 'cython') # Then we define a function LinearCongruentialGenerator_next, in a Cython cell. # In: get_ipython().run_cell_magic('cython', '', 'def nextLCG(int x, int a, int c, int m):\n """Compute x, nextx = (a * x + c) % m, x in Cython."""\n cdef int nextx = (a * x + c) % m\n return (x, nextx)') # In: from __main__ import nextLCG nextLCG get_ipython().run_line_magic('pinfo', 'nextLCG') # Then it's easy to use it to define another Linear Congruential Generator. # In: class CythonLinearCongruentialGenerator(LinearCongruentialGenerator): """A simple linear congruential Pseudo-Random Number Generator, with Cython accelerated function __next__.""" def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it, following the recurrence equation: X_{t+1} = (a X_t + c) mod m.""" self.t += 1 x, self.X = nextLCG(self.X, self.a, self.c, self.m) return x # Let compare it with the first implementation (using pure Python). # In: NotCythonSecondExample = LinearCongruentialGenerator(m=m, a=a, c=c, X0=13032017) CythonSecondExample = CythonLinearCongruentialGenerator(m=m, a=a, c=c, X0=13032017) # They both give the same values, that's a relief. # In: test(NotCythonSecondExample) test(CythonSecondExample) # The speedup is not great, but still visible. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ NotCythonSecondExample.randint() for _ in range(1000000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ CythonSecondExample.randint() for _ in range(1000000) ]') # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('prun', 'min(CythonSecondExample.randint() for _ in range(1000000))') # ---- # ## Checking and plotting the result? # First, we can generate a matrix of samples, as random floats in $[0, 1)$, and check that the mean is about $1/2$: # In: shape = (400, 400) image = SecondExample.float_samples(shape) # In: np.mean(image), np.var(image) # What about the speed? Of course, a hand-written Python code will always be really slower than a C-extension code, and the PRNG from the modules random or numpy.random are written in C (or Cython), and so will always be faster. # But how much faster? # In: import random import numpy.random print(np.mean(SecondExample.float_samples(shape))) print(np.mean([ [ random.random() for _ in range(shape) ] for _ in range(shape) ])) print(np.mean(numpy.random.random(shape))) # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'SecondExample.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ [ random.random() for _ in range(shape) ] for _ in range(shape) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'numpy.random.random(shape)') # This was expected: of course numpy.random. functions are written and optimized to generate thousands of samples quickly, and of course my hand-written Python implementation for LinearCongruentialGenerator is slower than the C-code generating the module random. # ---- # We can also plot this image as a grayscaled image, in order to visualize this "randomness" we just created. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('matplotlib', 'inline') import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def showimage(image): plt.figure(figsize=(8, 8)) plt.imshow(image, cmap='gray', interpolation='none') plt.axis('off') plt.show() # In: showimage(image) # It looks good already! We can't see any recurrence, but we see a regularity, with small squares. # # And it does not seem to depend too much on the seed: # In: SecondExample.seed(11032017) image = SecondExample.float_samples((10, 10)) showimage(image) # In: SecondExample.seed(1103201799) image = SecondExample.float_samples((10, 10)) showimage(image) # We can also visualize the generated numbers with a histogram, to visually check that the random numbers in $[0, 1)$ are indeed "uniformly" located. # In: def plotHistogram(example, nb=100000, bins=200): numbers = example.float_samples((nb,)) plt.figure(figsize=(16, 5)) plt.hist(numbers, bins=bins, normed=True, alpha=0.8) plt.xlabel("Random numbers in $[0, 1)$") plt.ylabel("Mass repartition") plt.title("Repartition of ${}$ random numbers in $[0, 1)$".format(nb)) plt.show() # In: plotHistogram(SecondExample, 1000000, 200) # ---- # ## A second example: Multiple-Recursive Generator # Let start by writing a generic Multiple Recursive Generator, which is defined by the following linear recurrence equation, of order $k \geq 1$: # # - Start from $X_0$, with a false initial history of $(X_{-k+1}, X_{-k}, \dots, X_{-1})$, # - And then follow the recurrence equation: $$X_{t} = (a_1 X_{t-1} + \dots + a_k X_{t-k}) \mod m.$$ # # This algorithm produces a sequence $(X_t)_{t\in\mathbb{N}} \in \mathbb{N}^{\mathbb{N}}$. # In: class MultipleRecursiveGenerator(PRNG): """A Multiple Recursive Pseudo-Random Number Generator (MRG), with one sequence (X_t).""" def __init__(self, m, a, X0): """Create a new PRNG with seed X0.""" assert np.shape(a) == np.shape(X0), "Error: the weight vector a must have the same shape as X0." super(MultipleRecursiveGenerator, self).__init__(X0=X0) self.m = self.max = m self.a = a def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it, following the recurrence equation: X_t = (a_1 X_{t-1} + ... + a_k X_{t-k}) mod m.""" self.t += 1 x = self.X nextx = (np.dot(self.a, self.X)) % self.m self.X[1:] = self.X[:-1] self.X = nextx return x # For example, with an arbitrary choice of $k = 3$, of weights $a = [10, 9, 8]$ and $X_0 = [10, 20, 30]$: # In: m = (1 << 31) - 1 X0 = np.array([10, 20, 30]) a = np.array([10, 9, 8]) ThirdExample = MultipleRecursiveGenerator(m, a, X0) test(ThirdExample) # We can again check for the mean and the variance of the generated sequence: # In: shape = (400, 400) image = ThirdExample.float_samples(shape) np.mean(image), np.var(image) # This Multiple Recursive Generator is of course slower than the simple Linear Recurrent Generator: # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'SecondExample.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'ThirdExample.float_samples(shape)') # And it seems to work fine as well: # In: showimage(image) # In: plotHistogram(ThirdExample, 1000000, 200) # > It looks also good! # ---- # ## A third example: combined Multiple-Recursive Generator, with MRG32k3a # # Let start by writing a generic Multiple Recursive Generator, which is defined by the following coupled linear recurrence equation, of orders $k_1, k_2 \geq 1$: # # - Start from $X_0$ and $Y_0$, with a false initial history of $(X_{-k_1 + 1}, X_{-k_1}, \dots, X_{-1})$ and $(Y_{-k_2 + 1}, Y_{-k_2}, \dots, Y_{-1})$, # - And then follow the recurrence equation: $$X_{t} = (a_1 X_{t-1} + \dots + a_{k_1} X_{t-k_1}) \mod m.$$ and $$Y_{t} = (b_1 Y_{t-1} + \dots + b_{k_2} Y_{t-k_2}) \mod m.$$ # # This algorithm produces two sequences $(X_t)_{t\in\mathbb{N}} \in \mathbb{N}^{\mathbb{N}}$ and $(X_t)_{t\in\mathbb{N}} \in \mathbb{N}^{\mathbb{N}}$, and usually the sequence used for the output is $U_t = X_t - Y_t + \max(m_1, m_2)$. # In: class CombinedMultipleRecursiveGenerator(PRNG): """A Multiple Recursive Pseudo-Random Number Generator (MRG), with two sequences (X_t, Y_t).""" def __init__(self, m1, a, X0, m2, b, Y0): """Create a new PRNG with seeds X0, Y0.""" assert np.shape(a) == np.shape(X0), "Error: the weight vector a must have the same shape as X0." assert np.shape(b) == np.shape(Y0), "Error: the weight vector b must have the same shape as Y0." self.t = 0 # For X self.m1 = m1 self.a = a self.X0 = self.X = X0 # For Y self.m2 = m2 self.b = b self.Y0 = self.Y = Y0 # Maximum integer number produced is max(m1, m2) self.m = self.max = max(m1, m2) def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it, following the recurrence equation: X_t = (a_1 X_{t-1} + ... + a_k X_{t-k}) mod m.""" self.t += 1 # For X x = self.X nextx = (np.dot(self.a, self.X)) % self.m1 self.X[1:] = self.X[:-1] self.X = nextx # For Y y = self.Y nexty = (np.dot(self.b, self.Y)) % self.m2 self.Y[1:] = self.Y[:-1] self.Y = nexty # Combine them u = x - y + (self.m1 if x <= y else 0) return u # To obtain the well-known MRG32k3a generator, designed by L'Ecuyer in 1999, we choose these parameters: # In: m1 = (1 << 32) - 209 # important choice! a = np.array([0, 1403580, -810728]) # important choice! X0 = np.array([1000, 10000, 100000]) # arbitrary choice! m2 = (1 << 32) - 22853 # important choice! b = np.array([527612, 0, -1370589]) # important choice! Y0 = np.array([5000, 50000, 500000]) # arbitrary choice! MRG32k3a = CombinedMultipleRecursiveGenerator(m1, a, X0, m2, b, Y0) test(MRG32k3a) # We can again check for the mean and the variance of the generated sequence: # In: shape = (400, 400) image = MRG32k3a.float_samples(shape) np.mean(image), np.var(image) # This combined Multiple Recursive Generator is of course slower than the simple Multiple Recursive Generator and the simple Linear Recurrent Generator: # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'SecondExample.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'ThirdExample.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'MRG32k3a.float_samples(shape)') # In: showimage(image) # In: plotHistogram(MRG32k3a, 1000000, 200) # > This one looks fine too! # ---- # ## Finally, the Mersenne twister PRNG # # I won't explain all the details, and will follow closely the notations from my reference book [Rubinstein & Kroese, 2017]. # It will be harder to implement! # # First, let us compute the period of the PRNG we will implement, with the default values for the parameters $w = 32$ (word length) and $n = 624$ ("big" integer). # ### Period # In: w = 32 n = 624 # In: def MersenneTwisterPeriod(n, w): return (1 << (w * (n - 1) + 1)) - 1 MersenneTwisterPeriod(n, w) == (2 ** 19937) - 1 # ### Random seeds # Then we need to use a previously defined PRNG to set the random seeds. # # To try to have "really random" seeds, let me use that classical trick of using the system time as a source of initial randomness. # # - Namely, I will use the number of microseconds in the current time stamp as the seed for a LinearCongruentialGenerator, # - Then use it to generate the seeds for a MRG32k3a generator, # - And finally use it to get the seed for the Mersenne twister. # In: from datetime import datetime def get_seconds(): d = datetime.today().timestamp() s = 1e6 * (d - int(d)) return int(s) # In: get_seconds() # Example # In: def seed_rows(example, n, w): return example.int_samples((n,)) def random_Mersenne_seed(n, w): linear = LinearCongruentialGenerator(m=(1 << 31) - 1, a=7 ** 4, c=0, X0=get_seconds()) assert w == 32, "Error: only w = 32 was implemented" m1 = (1 << 32) - 209 # important choice! a = np.array([0, 1403580, -810728]) # important choice! X0 = np.array(linear.int_samples((3,))) # random choice! m2 = (1 << 32) - 22853 # important choice! b = np.array([527612, 0, -1370589]) # important choice! Y0 = np.array(linear.int_samples((3,))) # random choice! MRG32k3a = CombinedMultipleRecursiveGenerator(m1, a, X0, m2, b, Y0) seed = seed_rows(MRG32k3a, n, w) assert np.shape(seed) == (n,) return seed example_seed = random_Mersenne_seed(n, w) example_seed # In: for xi in example_seed: print("Integer xi = {:>12} and in binary, bin(xi) = {:>34}".format(xi, bin(xi))) # ### Implementing the Mersenne twister algorithm # Finally, the Mersenne twister can be implemented like this: # In: class MersenneTwister(PRNG): """The Mersenne twister Pseudo-Random Number Generator (MRG).""" def __init__(self, seed=None, w=32, n=624, m=397, r=31, a=0x9908B0DF, b=0x9D2C5680, c=0xEFC60000, u=11, s=7, v=15, l=18): """Create a new Mersenne twister PRNG with this seed.""" self.t = 0 # Parameters self.w = w self.n = n self.m = m self.r = r self.a = a self.b = b self.c = c self.u = u self.s = s self.v = v self.l = l # For X if seed is None: seed = random_Mersenne_seed(n, w) self.X0 = seed self.X = np.copy(seed) # Maximum integer number produced is 2**w - 1 self.max = (1 << w) - 1 def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it, following the Mersenne twister algorithm.""" self.t += 1 # 1. --- Compute x_{t+n} # 1.1.a. First r bits of x_t : left = (x_t >> (w - r)) << (w - r) # 1.1.b. Last w - r bits of x_{t+1} : right = x & ((1 << (w - r)) - 1) # 1.1.c. Concatenate them together in a binary vector x : x = left + right left = self.X >> (self.w - self.r) right = (self.X & ((1 << (self.w - self.r)) - 1)) x = (left << (self.w - self.r)) + right xw = x % 2 # 1.2. get xw if xw == 0: xtilde = (x >> 1) # if xw = 0, xtilde = (x >> 1) else: xtilde = (x >> 1) ^ self.a # if xw = 1, xtilde = (x >> 1) ⊕ a nextx = self.X[self.m] ^ xtilde # 1.3. x_{t+n} = x_{t+m} ⊕ \tilde{x} # 2. --- Shift the content of the n rows oldx0 = self.X # 2.a. First, forget x0 self.X[:-1] = self.X[1:] # 2.b. shift one index on the left, x1..xn-1 to x0..xn-2 self.X[-1] = nextx # 2.c. write new xn-1 # 3. --- Then use it to compute the answer, y y = nextx # 3.a. y = x_{t+n} y ^= (y >> self.u) # 3.b. y = y ⊕ (y >> u) y ^= ((y << self.s) & self.b) # 3.c. y = y ⊕ ((y << s) & b) y ^= ((y << self.v) & self.c) # 3.d. y = y ⊕ ((y << v) & c) y ^= (y >> self.l) # 3.e. y = y ⊕ (y >> l) return y # ### Small review of bitwise operations # # The Python documentation explains how to [use bitwise operations easily](https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html?highlight=bitwise#bitwise-operations-on-integer-types), and also [this page](https://wiki.python.org/moin/BitwiseOperators) and [this StackOverflow answer](http://stackoverflow.com/a/1746642/). # # The only difficult part of the algorithm is the first step, when we need to take the first $r$ bits of $X_t =$ X, and the last $w - r$ bits of $X_{t+1} =$ X. # On some small examples, let quickly check that I implemented this correctly: # In: def testsplit(x, r=None, w=None): if w is None: w = x.bit_length() if r is None: r = w - 1 assert x.bit_length() == w left = x >> (w - r) right = x % 2 if w == 1 else x & ((1 << (w-r) - 1)) x2 = (left << (w - r)) + right assert x == x2 print("x = {:10} -> left r={} = {:10} and right w-r={} = {:4} -> x2 = {:10}".format(bin(x), r, bin(left), w-r, bin(right), bin(x2))) x = 0b10011010 testsplit(x) x = 0b10010011 testsplit(x) x = 0b10011111 testsplit(x) x = 0b11110001 testsplit(x) x = 0b00110001 testsplit(x) # ### Mersenne twister algorithm in [cython](http://www.cython.org/) # As for the first example, let us write a Cython function to (try to) compute the next numbers more easily. # # My reference was [this page of the Cython documentation](http://docs.cython.org/en/latest/src/userguide/numpy_tutorial.html). # In: get_ipython().run_cell_magic('cython', '', 'from __future__ import division\nimport cython\nimport numpy as np\n# "cimport" is used to import special compile-time information\n# about the numpy module (this is stored in a file numpy.pxd which is\n# currently part of the Cython distribution).\ncimport numpy as np\n\n# We now need to fix a datatype for our arrays. I\'ve used the variable\n# DTYPE for this, which is assigned to the usual NumPy runtime\n# type info object.\nDTYPE = np.int64\n# "ctypedef" assigns a corresponding compile-time type to DTYPE_t. For\n# every type in the numpy module there\'s a corresponding compile-time\n# type with a _t-suffix.\nctypedef np.int64_t DTYPE_t\n\n\n@cython.boundscheck(False) # turn off bounds-checking for entire function\ndef nextMersenneTwister(np.ndarray[DTYPE_t, ndim=1] X, unsigned long w, unsigned long m, unsigned long r, unsigned long a, unsigned long u, unsigned long s, unsigned long b, unsigned long v, unsigned long c, unsigned long l):\n """Produce a next value and return it, following the Mersenne twister algorithm, implemented in Cython."""\n assert X.dtype == DTYPE\n # 1. --- Compute x_{t+n}\n # 1.1.a. First r bits of x_t : left = (x_t >> (w - r)) << (w - r)\n # 1.1.b. Last w - r bits of x_{t+1} : right = x & ((1 << (w - r)) - 1)\n # 1.1.c. Concatenate them together in a binary vector x : x = left + right\n cdef unsigned long x = ((X >> (w - r)) << (w - r)) + (X & ((1 << (w - r)) - 1))\n cdef unsigned long xtilde = 0\n if x % 2 == 0: # 1.2. get xw\n xtilde = (x >> 1) # if xw = 0, xtilde = (x >> 1)\n else:\n xtilde = (x >> 1) ^ a # if xw = 1, xtilde = (x >> 1) ⊕ a\n cdef unsigned long nextx = X[m] ^ xtilde # 1.3. x_{t+n} = x_{t+m} ⊕ \\tilde{x}\n # 2. --- Shift the content of the n rows\n # oldx0 = X # 2.a. First, forget x0\n X[:-1] = X[1:] # 2.b. shift one index on the left, x1..xn-1 to x0..xn-2\n X[-1] = nextx # 2.c. write new xn-1\n # 3. --- Then use it to compute the answer, y\n cdef unsigned long y = nextx # 3.a. y = x_{t+n}\n y ^= (y >> u) # 3.b. y = y ⊕ (y >> u)\n y ^= ((y << s) & b) # 3.c. y = y ⊕ ((y << s) & b)\n y ^= ((y << v) & c) # 3.d. y = y ⊕ ((y << v) & c)\n y ^= (y >> l) # 3.e. y = y ⊕ (y >> l)\n return y') # In: nextMersenneTwister get_ipython().run_line_magic('pinfo', 'nextMersenneTwister') # That should be enough to define a Cython version of our MersenneTwister class. # In: class CythonMersenneTwister(MersenneTwister): """The Mersenne twister Pseudo-Random Number Generator (MRG), accelerated with Cython.""" def __next__(self): """Produce a next value and return it, following the Mersenne twister algorithm.""" self.t += 1 return nextMersenneTwister(self.X, self.w, self.m, self.r, self.a, self.u, self.s, self.b, self.v, self.c, self.l) # ### Testing our implementations # In: ForthExample = MersenneTwister(seed=example_seed) CythonForthExample = CythonMersenneTwister(seed=example_seed) # In: ForthExample.int_samples((10,)) CythonForthExample.int_samples((10,)) # Which one is the quickest? # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ ForthExample.randint() for _ in range(100000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ CythonForthExample.randint() for _ in range(100000) ]') # Using Cython gives only a speedup of $2 \times$, that's disappointing! # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('prun', '[ ForthExample.randint() for _ in range(1000000) ]') # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('prun', '[ CythonForthExample.randint() for _ in range(1000000) ]') # $\implies$ the Cython version is twice as fast as the pure-Python version. # We can still improve this, I am sure. # # ---- # We can again check for the mean and the variance of the generated sequence. # Mean should be $\frac12 = 0.5$ and variance should be $\frac{(b-a)^2}{12} = \frac{1}{12} = 0.08333\dots$: # In: shape = (400, 400) image = ForthExample.float_samples(shape) np.mean(image), np.var(image) # This Python hand-written Mersenne twister is of course slower than the previous PRNG defined above (combined Multiple Recursive Generator, simple Multiple Recursive Generator, and the simple Linear Recurrent Generator): # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'SecondExample.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'ThirdExample.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'MRG32k3a.float_samples(shape)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'ForthExample.float_samples(shape)') # That's not too bad, for $400 \times 400 = 160000$ samples, but obviously it is incredibly slower than the optimized PRNG found in the [numpy.random](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/routines.random.html) package. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'numpy.random.random_sample(shape)') # A good surprise is that this implementation Mersenne appears faster than the combined MRG of order $k = 3$ (i.e., MRG32k3a). # In: showimage(image) # In: plotHistogram(ForthExample, 1000000, 200) # ---- # ## Conclusion # Well, that's it, I just wanted to implement a few Pseudo-Random Number Generators, and compare them. # # I should finish the job: # - implement a test for "randomness", and check the various PRNG I implemented against it, # - use these various rand() functions (uniform in $[0,1)$) to generate other distributions. # ---- # # Generating samples from other distributions # So far, I implemented some PRNG, which essentially give a function rand() to produce float number uniformly sampled from $[0, 1)$. # # Let use it to generate samples from other distributions. # In: def newrand(): """Create a new random function rand().""" mersenne = MersenneTwister() rand = mersenne.rand return rand rand = newrand() # We will need an easy way to visualize the repartition of samples for the distributions defined below. # In: def plotHistogramOfDistribution(distr, nb=10000, bins=200): numbers = [ distr() for _ in range(nb) ] plt.figure(figsize=(14, 3)) plt.hist(numbers, bins=bins, normed=True, alpha=0.8) plt.xlabel("Random numbers from function %s" % distr.__name__) plt.ylabel("Mass repartition") plt.title("Repartition of ${}$ random numbers".format(nb)) plt.show() # ---- # ## Bernoulli distribution # It is the simplest example, $X \in \{0, 1\}$, $\mathbb{P}(X = 0) = p$ and $\mathbb{P}(X = 1) = 1 - p$ for some parameter $p \in [0,1]$. # In: def bernoulli(p=0.5): """Get one random sample X ~ Bern(p).""" assert 0 <= p <= 1, "Error: the parameter p for a bernoulli distribution has to be in [0, 1]." return int(rand() < p) # In: print([ bernoulli(0.5) for _ in range(20) ]) print([ bernoulli(0.1) for _ in range(20) ]) # lots of 0 print([ bernoulli(0.9) for _ in range(20) ]) # lots of 1 # We can quickly check that the frequency of $1$ in a large sample of size $n$ will converge to $p$ as $n \to +\infty$: # In: def delta_p_phat_bernoulli(p, nb=100000): samples = [ bernoulli(p) for _ in range(nb) ] return np.abs(np.mean(samples) - p) # In: print(delta_p_phat_bernoulli(0.5)) print(delta_p_phat_bernoulli(0.1)) print(delta_p_phat_bernoulli(0.9)) # That's less than $1\%$ of absolute error, alright. # In: plotHistogramOfDistribution(bernoulli) # ---- # ## Uniform distribution on $[a, b)$, for floats and integers # This one is obvious too: # In: def uniform(a, b): """Uniform float number in [a, b).""" assert a < b, "Error: for uniform(a, b), a must be < b." return a + (b - a) * rand() # In: def uniform_3_5(): return uniform(3, 5) plotHistogramOfDistribution(uniform_3_5, 100000) # For integers, it is extremely similar: # In: def randint(a, b): """Uniform float number in [a, b).""" assert a < b, "Error: for randint(a, b), a must be < b." assert isinstance(a, int), "Error: for randint(a, b), a must be an integer." assert isinstance(b, int), "Error: for randint(a, b), a must be an integer." return int(a + (b - a) * rand()) # In: def uniform_int_18_42(): return randint(18, 42) plotHistogramOfDistribution(uniform_int_18_42, 100000) # ---- # ## Exponential distribution # If $X \sim \mathrm{Exp}(\lambda)$, $F(x) = 1 - \mathrm{e}^{- \lambda x}$, and so $F^{-1}(u) = -\frac1{\lambda} \ln(1 - u)$. # The inversion method is easy to apply here: # In: from math import log def exponential(lmbda=1): """Get one random sample X ~ Exp(lmbda).""" assert lmbda > 0, "Error: the parameter lmbda for exponential(lmbda) must be > 0." u = rand() # 1 - u ~ U([0, 1]), so u and 1 - u follow the same distribution return -(1.0 / lmbda) * log(u) # The resulting histogram has the shape we know as "exponential": # In: plotHistogramOfDistribution(exponential) # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.exponential()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.exponential), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ exponential(1.) for _ in range(10000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.exponential(1.) for _ in range(10000) ] # about 50 times slower, not too bad!') # ---- # ## Gaussian distribution (normal) # By using the Box-Muller approach, if $U_1, U_2 \sim U(0, 1)$ are independent, then setting $X = \sqrt{- 2 \ln U_1} \cos(2 \pi U_2)$ and $Y = \sqrt{- 2 \ln U_1} \sin(2 \pi U_2)$ leads to $X, Y \sim N(0, 1)$. # # Then $Z = \mu + \sigma * X$ will be distributed according to the Gaussian distribution of *mean* $\mu$ and *variance* $\sigma > 0$: $Z \sim N(\mu, \sigma)$. # In: from math import sqrt, cos, pi def normal(mu=0, sigma=1): """Get one random sample X ~ N(mu, sigma).""" assert sigma > 0, "Error: the parameter sigma for normal(mu, sigma) must be > 0." u1, u2 = rand(), rand() x = sqrt(- 2 * log(u1)) * cos(2 * pi * u2) return mu + sigma * x # In: plotHistogramOfDistribution(normal, 100000) # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.normal()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.normal), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ normal(0, 1) for _ in range(10000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'np.random.normal(0, 1, 10000) # 550 times quicker! oh boy!') # ---- # ## Erlang distribution # If $X \sim \mathrm{Erl}(m, \lambda)$, then it simply is the sum of $m \in \mathbb{N}^{*}$ *iid* exponential random variables $Y_i \sim \mathrm{Exp}(\lambda)$. # In: def erlang(m=1., lmbda=1.): """Get one random sample X ~ Erl(m, lmbda).""" assert m > 0, "Error: the parameter m for erlang(m, lmbda) must be > 0." assert lmbda > 0, "Error: the parameter lmbda for erlang(m, lmbda) must be > 0." return - 1. / lmbda * sum(log(rand()) for _ in range(int(m)) ) # In: def erlang_20_10(): return erlang(20, 10) plotHistogramOfDistribution(erlang_20_10) # ---- # ## Gamma distribution # The algorithm is more complicated. # The pdf of $X \sim \mathrm{Gamma}(\alpha, \lambda)$ is $f(x) = x^{\alpha - 1} \lambda^{\alpha} \mathrm{e}^{- \lambda x} / \Gamma(\alpha)$, for parameters $\alpha>0, \lambda>0$. # In: def gamma(alpha=1., lmbda=1.): """Get one random sample X ~ Gamma(alpha, lmbda).""" assert alpha > 0, "Error: the parameter alpha for gamma(alpha, lmbda) must be > 0." assert lmbda > 0, "Error: the parameter lmbda for gamma(alpha, lmbda) must be > 0." if alpha <= 1: x = gamma(alpha + 1., lmbda) u = rand() return x * (u ** (1. / alpha)) else: d = alpha - (1. / 3.) oneByC = sqrt(9. * d) c = 1. / oneByC while True: z = normal(0, 1) if z > - oneByC: v = (1. + c * z)**3 u = rand() if log(u) < (.5 * (z**2)) + d*(v + log(v)): break return d * v / lmbda # In: def gamma_pi_5(): return gamma(pi, 5) plotHistogramOfDistribution(gamma_pi_5) # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.gamma()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.gamma), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ gamma(pi, 5) for _ in range(10000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.gamma(pi, 5) for _ in range(10000) ] # 500 times quicker! oh boy!') # ---- # ## Beta distribution # By definition, a Beta distribution is straightforward to obtain as soon as we have a Gamma distribution: # if $Y_1 \sim \mathrm{Gamma}(\alpha, 1)$ and $Y_2 \sim \mathrm{Gamma}(\beta, 1)$, then $X = \frac{Y_1}{Y_1 + Y_2}$ follows $\mathrm{Beta}(\alpha, \beta)$. # In: def beta(a=1., b=1.): """Get one random sample X ~ Beta(a, b).""" assert a > 0, "Error: the parameter a for beta(a, b) must be > 0." assert b > 0, "Error: the parameter b for beta(a, b) must be > 0." y1 = gamma(a, 1.) y2 = gamma(b, 1.) return y1 / float(y1 + y2) # In: def beta_40_5(): return beta(40, 5) plotHistogramOfDistribution(beta_40_5) def beta_3_55(): return beta(3, 55) plotHistogramOfDistribution(beta_3_55) # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.beta()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.beta), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ beta(pi, 5*pi) for _ in range(1000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ beta(5*pi, pi) for _ in range(1000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.beta(pi, 5*pi) for _ in range(1000) ] # 200 times quicker! oh boy!') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.beta(5*pi, pi) for _ in range(1000) ] # 200 times quicker! oh boy!') # ---- # ## Integer Beta distribution # If $\alpha = m, \beta = n$ are integer, it is much simpler: # In: def int_beta(m=1, n=1): """Get one random sample X ~ Beta(m, n) with integer parameters m, n.""" assert m > 0, "Error: the parameter m for int_beta(m, n) must be > 0." assert n > 0, "Error: the parameter n for int_beta(m, n) must be > 0." us = [rand() for _ in range(m + n - 1)] return sorted(us)[m] # inefficient to sort, but quick to write! # In: def int_beta_40_5(): return int_beta(40, 5) plotHistogramOfDistribution(int_beta_40_5) # We can again compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.beta()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.beta), and of course it is slower, but this integer-specific implementation int_beta() is quicker than the generic beta() implementation. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ int_beta(40, 5) for _ in range(1000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ int_beta(3, 55) for _ in range(1000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.beta(40, 5) for _ in range(1000) ] # 1500 times quicker! oh boy!') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.beta(3, 55) for _ in range(1000) ] # 2000 times quicker! oh boy!') # ---- # ## Binomial distribution # Very easy to obtain, by definition, from the sum of $n$ Bernoulli distribution: # if $Y_1,\dots,Y_n \sim \mathrm{Bern}(p)$, then $X = \sum_{i=1}^n Y_i \sim \mathrm{Bin}(n, p)$. # In: def binomial(n=1, p=0.5): """Get one random sample X ~ Bin(n, p).""" assert 0 <= p <= 1, "Error: the parameter p for binomial(n, p) has to be in [0, 1]." assert n > 0, "Error: the parameter n for binomial(n, p) has to be in [0, 1]." return sum(bernoulli(p) for _ in range(n)) # In: def bin_50_half(): return binomial(50, 0.5) plotHistogramOfDistribution(bin_50_half) # > It is an integer distribution, meaning that $X \sim \mathrm{Bin}(n, p)$ always is $X \in \mathbb{N}$. # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.binomial()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.binomial), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ binomial(10, 1. / pi) for _ in range(1000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.binomial(10, 1. / pi) for _ in range(1000) ] # 100 times quicker! oh boy!') # ---- # ## Geometric distribution # Again, it is very easy from the definition of a Geometric random variable. # In: def geometric(p=0.5): """Get one random sample X ~ Geom(p).""" assert 0 <= p <= 1, "Error: the parameter p for binomial(n, p) has to be in [0, 1]." y = exponential(- log(1. - p)) return 1 + int(y) # In: def geom_05(): return geometric(0.5) plotHistogramOfDistribution(geom_05) def geom_01(): return geometric(0.1) plotHistogramOfDistribution(geom_01) def geom_001(): return geometric(0.01) plotHistogramOfDistribution(geom_001) # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.geometric()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.geometric), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ geometric(1. / pi) for _ in range(10000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.geometric(1. / pi) for _ in range(10000) ] # 50 times quicker, not too bad!') # ---- # ## Poisson distribution # If $X \sim \mathrm{Pois}(\lambda)$, then its pdf is $f(n) = \frac{\mathrm{e}^{-\lambda} \lambda^n}{n!}$. # With the rejection method, and the close relationship between the Exponential and the Poisson distributions, it is not too hard to generate samples from a Poisson distribution if we know how to generate samples from a Exponential distribution. # In: def poisson(lmbda=1.): """Get one random sample X ~ Poisson(lmbda).""" assert lmbda > 0, "Error: the parameter lmbda for poisson(lmbda) has to be > 0." n = 0 a = 1 while a >= exp(-lmbda): u = rand() a *= u n += 1 return n - 1 # In: def poisson_5(): return poisson(5.) plotHistogramOfDistribution(poisson_5) def poisson_50(): return poisson(50.) plotHistogramOfDistribution(poisson_50) # We can compare its efficiency with [numpy.random.poisson()](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.random.exponential.html#numpy.random.poisson), and of course it is slower. # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ poisson(12 * pi) for _ in range(1000) ]') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', '[ np.random.poisson(12 * pi) for _ in range(1000) ] # 1000 times quicker! oh boy!') # --- # ## Conclusion # Except the Gamma distribution, the algorithms presented above are easy to understand and to implement, and it was quick to obtain a dozen of the most common distributions, both continous (Exponential, Gaussian, Gamma, Beta) and discrete (Bernoulli, Binomial, Geometric, Poisson). # ---- # # Generating vectors # # Now that we have a nice Pseudo-Random Number Generator, using Mersenne twister, and that we have demonstrated how to use its rand() function to produce samples from the most common distributions, we can continue and explain how to produce vectors of samples. # # For instance, one would need a choice() function to get a random sample from a list of $n$ values, following any discrete distribution, or a shuffle() function to randomly shuffle a list. # ---- # ## Discrete distribution # Let $p = [p_1, \dots, p_n] \in \mathbb{R}^n$ be a discrete distribution, meaning that $p_i > 0$ and $\sum_{i=1}^n p_i = 1$, then we can use the inverse-transform method to get a sample $i \in \{1, \dots, n\}$ with probability $\mathbb{P}(i = j) = p_j$. # In: def discrete(p): """Return a random index i in [0..n-1] from the discrete distribution p = [p0,..,pn-1].""" n = len(p) assert n > 0, "Error: the distribution p for discrete(p) must not be empty!" assert all(0 <= pi <= 1 for pi in p), "Error: all coordinates of the distribution p for discrete(p) must be 0 <= pi <= 1." assert abs(sum(p) - 1) < 1e-9, "Error: the distribution p for discrete(p) does not sum to 1." u = rand() i = 0 s = p while i < n-1 and u > s: i += 1 s += p[i] return i # Then it is easy to get *one* random sample from a list of values: # In: def one_choice(values, p=None): """Get a random sample from the values, from the dsicrete distribution p = [p0,..,pn-1].""" if p is None: return values[randint(0, len(values))] else: return values[discrete(p)] # In: def example_choice(): return one_choice(range(10)) plotHistogramOfDistribution(example_choice) # And it is also easy to generate many samples, with replacement. # In: def choices_with_replacement(values, m=1, p=None): """Get m random sample from the values, with replacement, from the discrete distribution p = [p0,..,pn-1].""" if p is None: return [ values[randint(0, len(values))] for _ in range(m) ] else: return [ values[discrete(p)] for _ in range(m) ] # It is harder to handle the case without replacements. My approach is simple but slow: once a value is drawn, remove it from the input list, and update the discrete distribution accordingly. # To be sure of not modifying the input list, I use copy.copy() to copy them. # In: from copy import copy def choices_without_replacement(values, m=1, p=None): """Get m random sample from the values, without replacement, from the discrete distribution p = [p0,..,pn-1].""" values = copy(values) if p is None: samples = [] for _ in range(m): i = randint(0, len(values)) samples.append(values[i]) del values[i] else: p = copy(p) samples = [] for _ in range(m): i = discrete(p) samples.append(values[i]) del values[i] del p[i] renormalize_cst = float(sum(p)) p = [ pi / renormalize_cst for pi in p ] return samples # In: values = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] p = [0.5, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02] # We can check that the input lists are not modified: # In: print(choices_without_replacement(values, 5)) print(choices_without_replacement(values, 5)) print(choices_without_replacement(values, 5)) print(choices_without_replacement(values, 5, p)) print(choices_without_replacement(values, 5, p)) print(choices_without_replacement(values, 5, p)) # With an histogram, we can check that as a large weight is put on $0 =$ values, the *sum* of $m = 5$ samples will be smaller if replacements are allowed (more chance to get twice a $0$ value). # In: def example_with_replacement(): return np.sum(choices_with_replacement(values, 5, p)) plotHistogramOfDistribution(example_with_replacement) def example2_with_replacement(): return np.sum(choices_with_replacement(values, 5)) plotHistogramOfDistribution(example2_with_replacement) # In: def example_without_replacement(): # this sum is at least >= 10 = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 (5 smallest values) return np.sum(choices_without_replacement(values, 5, p)) plotHistogramOfDistribution(example_without_replacement) def example2_without_replacement(): # this sum is at least >= 10 = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 (5 smallest values) return np.sum(choices_without_replacement(values, 5)) plotHistogramOfDistribution(example2_without_replacement) # ---- # ## Generating a random vector uniformly on a n-dimensional ball # # The acceptance-rejection method is easy to apply in this case. # We use uniform(-1, 1) $n$ times to get a random vector in $[0,1]^n$, and keep trying as long as it is not in the $n$-dim ball. # In: def on_a_ball(n=1, R=1): """Generate a vector of dimension n, uniformly from the n-dim ball of radius R.""" rsquare = float('inf') Rsquare = R**2 while rsquare > Rsquare: values = [ uniform(-R, R) for _ in range(n) ] rsquare = sum(xi ** 2 for xi in values) return values # In: print(on_a_ball(4, 1)) # The radius of such a vector can be plotted in a histogram. # In: def random_radius_dim3(): return sqrt(sum(xi**2 for xi in on_a_ball(3, 1))) plotHistogramOfDistribution(random_radius_dim3, 100000) # And similarly, if we normalize the values before returning them, to move them to the surface of the $n$-dimensional ball, then we get an easy way to sample a uniform *direction*: # In: def on_a_sphere(n=1, R=1): """Generate a vector of dimension n, uniformly on the surface of the n-dim ball of radius R.""" rsquare = float('inf') Rsquare = R**2 while rsquare > Rsquare: values = [ uniform(-1, 1) for _ in range(n) ] rsquare = sum(xi ** 2 for xi in values) r = sqrt(rsquare) return [ xi / r for xi in values ] # All such samples have the same radius, but it can be interesting the see the smallest gap between two coordinates. # In: def random_delta_dim3(): return np.min(np.diff(sorted(on_a_sphere(3, 1)))) plotHistogramOfDistribution(random_radius_dim3, 100000) # ---- # ## Generating a random permutation # # The first approach is simple to write and understand, and it uses choices_without_replacement([0..n-1], n) with a uniform distribution $p$. # In: def random_permutation(n=1): """Random permutation of [0..n-1], with the function choices_without_replacement.""" return choices_without_replacement(list(range(n)), n) # In: for _ in range(10): print(random_permutation(10)) # It seems random enough! # # To check this first implementation, we can implement the stupidest sorting algorithm, the "shuffle sort": # shuffle the input list, as long as it is not correctly sorted. # In: def is_sorted(values, debug=False): """Check if the values are sorted in increasing order, worst case is O(n).""" n = len(values) if n <= 1: return True xn, xnext = values, values for i in range(1, n + 1): if xn > xnext: if debug: print("Values x[{}] = {} > x[{}+1] = {} are not in the good order!".format(xn, i, i, xnext)) return False if i >= n: return True xn, xnext = xnext, values[i] return True print(is_sorted([1, 2, 3, 4], debug=True)) print(is_sorted([1, 2, 3, 4, 0], debug=True)) print(is_sorted([1, 2, 5, 4], debug=True)) print(is_sorted([1, 6, 3, 4], debug=True)) # We can easily apply a permutation, and return a shuffled version of a list of values. # In: def apply_perm(values, perm): """Apply the permutation perm to the values.""" return [values[pi] for pi in perm] def shuffled(values): """Return a random permutation of the values.""" return apply_perm(values, random_permutation(len(values))) # Similarly, it is easy to shuffle in place a list of values. # In: def shuffle(values): """Apply in place a random permutation of the values.""" perm = random_permutation(len(values)) v = copy(values) for (i, pi) in enumerate(perm): values[i] = v[pi] # In: def shuffle_sort(values): """Can you think of a more stupid sorting algorithm? or a shorter one?""" values = copy(values) while not is_sorted(values): print(values) shuffle(values) return values # modified in place but also returned # In: shuffle_sort([2, 1]) # It is a **very** inefficient algorithm, but the fact that it works on small lists is enough to confirm that our algorithm to generate random permutations works fine. # In: print(shuffle_sort(shuffled(list(range(3))))) print(shuffle_sort(shuffled(list(range(4))))) # We can think of another algorithm to generate a random permutation: # - take $n$ values $u_1,\dots,u_n \sim U(0, 1)$, # - order them, # - return the index of the sort. # In: def random_permutation_2(n=1): """Random permutation of [0..n-1], by sorting n uniform values in [0,1].""" return list(np.argsort([rand() for _ in range(n)])) # In: for _ in range(10): print(random_permutation_2(10)) # It seems random enough too! # # Let compare which of the two algorithms is the fastest: # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation(100)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_2(100)') # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation(10000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_2(10000)') # It seems that the first algorithm is slower, but this comes from the naively-written choice_without_replacement(), in fact we can implement it more efficiently. # In: def random_permutation_3(n=1): """Random permutation of [0..n-1], with a smart implementation of choices_without_replacement.""" p = list(range(n)) values = [] for i in range(n): j = randint(0, n - i) values.append(p[j]) p[i], p[j] = p[j], p[i] return values # In: for _ in range(10): print(random_permutation_3(10)) # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation(1000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_2(1000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_3(1000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'numpy.random.permutation(1000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation(10000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_2(10000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_3(10000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'numpy.random.permutation(10000) # About 1000 times slower! Oh boy!!') # Hoho, not so sure on small lists... # But for larger values of $n$, the second implementation of the first algorithm wins: # In: get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation(100000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_2(100000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'random_permutation_3(100000)') get_ipython().run_line_magic('timeit', 'numpy.random.permutation(100000) # About 1000 times slower! Oh boy!!') # And the second algorithm wins, as it uses the optimized numpy.argsort() function as its core operator. # ---- # ## Conclusion # This last part presented how to generate from any discrete distribution, and then two algorithms to generate a random permutation, uniformly sampled from $\Sigma_n$ (set of $n!$ permutations of $\{0,\dots,n-1\}$). # We applied them to the (very stupid) "shuffle sort" algorithm, to check their correctness. # # ---- # > *That's it for today, folks!*